In press

Miller ET, Klausmeier CA. Evolutionary stability of coexistence due to the storage effect in a two-season model. Theoretical Ecology

Wickman J, Diehl S, Ryabov AB, Blasius B, Klausmeier CA, Brannstrom A. Determining selection across heterogeneous landscapes: a perturbation-based method and its application to modeling evolution in space. American Naturalist

O'Donnell DR, Wilburn P, Silow E, Yampolsky LY, Litchman E. Nitrogen and phosphorus co-limitation of phytoplankton in Lake Baikal, Siberia: insights from the lake survey and nutrient enrichment experiments. Limnology and Oceanography

Roselli L, Litchman E, Stanca E, Cozzoli F, Basset A. Individual trait variation in phytoplankton communities across multiple spatial scales. Journal of Plankton Research

Zhang F, Wang J, Thon J, Thon C, Litchman E, Tan X. Gliding robotic fish for mobile sampling of aquatic environments. Invited. IEEE Proceedings on Networking, Sensing, and Control.


Koffel T, Daufresne T, Massol F, Klausmeier CA. Geometrical envelopes: extending graphical contemporary niche theory to communities and eco-evolutionary dynamics. Journal of Theoretical Biology 407: 271-289

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Bonachela JA, Klausmeier CA, Edwards KF, Litchman E, Levin SA. The role of phytoplankton diversity in the emergent oceanic stoichiometry. Journal of Plankton Research 38: 1021-1035

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Stump SM, Klausmeier CA. Competition and coexistence between a syntrophic consortium and a metabolic generalist, and its effect on productivity. Journal of Theoretical Biology 404: 348-360

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Edwards KF, Thomas MK, Klausmeier CA, Litchman E. Phytoplankton growth and the interaction of light and temperature: a synthesis at the species and community level. Limnology & Oceanography 61: 1232-1244

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Lewandowska AM, and 31 others. The influence of balanced and imbalanced resource supply on biodiversity-functioning relationship across ecosystems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 371: 20150283

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Thomas MK, Kremer CT, Litchman E. Environment and evolutionary history determine the global biogeography of phytoplankton temperature traits. Global Ecology and Biogeography 25: 75-86

Thomas MK, Litchman E. Interactive effects of temperature, nitrogen availability and toxicity on the growth of invasive and native cyanobacteria. Hydrobiologia 763: 357-369

Yema L, Litchman E, de Tezanos Pinto P. The role of heterocytes in the physiology and ecology of bloom-forming harmful cyanobacteria. Harmful Algae 60: 131-138

Zhang F, Ennasr O, Litchman E, Tan X. Autonomous sampling of water columns using gliding robotic fish: algorithms and harmful algae sampling experiments. IEEE Systems Journal 10: 1271-1281


Litchman E, de Tezanos Pinto P, Edwards KF, Klausmeier CA, Kremer CT, Thomas MT. Global biogeochemical impacts of phytoplankton: a trait-based perspective. Journal of Ecology 103: 1384-1396

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Edwards KF, Klausmeier CA, Litchman E. Nutrient utilization traits in phytoplankton (data paper). Ecology 96:2311

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Reed DC, Breier JA, Jiang H, Anantharaman K, Klausmeier CA, Toner BM, Hancock C, Speer K, Thurnherr AM, Dick GJ. Predicting the response of the deep-ocean microbiome to geochemical perturbations by hydrothermal vents. ISME Journal 9: 1857-1869

(1.1 MB PDF)

Litchman E, Edwards KF, Klausmeier CA. Microbial resource utilization traits and trade-offs: implications for commuity structure, functioning and biogeochemical impacts at present and in the future. Frontiers in Microbiology 6: 254

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Edwards KF, Thomas MK, Klausmeier CA, Litchman E. Light and phytoplankton growth: allometry, taxonomic variation, and biogeography. Limnology and Oceanography 60: 540-552.

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Nalley JO, M Stockenreiter and E Litchman. Community ecology of algal biofuels: complementarity and trait-based approaches. Industrial Biotechnology 10: 191-201.

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Kremer CT, Gillette JP, Rudstam LS, Brettum P, Ptacnik R. A compendium of cell and natural unit biovolumes for >1200 freshwater phytoplankton species. Ecology 95: 2984.

Abstract (58KB PDF) :: Data Paper (ESA Website)

Edwards KF and E Litchman. Phytoplankton communities. Chapter 16 in Marine Community Ecology and Conservation, eds. MD Bertness, JF Bruno, BR Silliman, JJ Stachowics. Sinauer.


Shurin JB, RL Abbott, MS Deal, G Kwan, E Litchman, R McBride, S Mandal and VH Smith. Industrial-strength ecology: Tradeoffs and opportunities in algal biofuel production. Ecology Letters 16: 1393-1404.

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Kremer CT, Klausmeier CA. Coexistence in a variable environment: eco-evolutionary perspectives. Journal of Theoretical Biology 339: 14-25.

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Edwards KF, CA Klausmeier and E Litchman. A three-way tradeoff maintains functional diversity under variable resource supply. American Naturalist 182: 786-800.

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Edwards KF, E Litchman and CA Klausmeier. Functional traits predict variation in phytoplankton community structure across lakes of the United States. Ecology 94: 1626-1635.

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Edwards KF, E Litchman and CA Klausmeier. Functional traits explain phytoplankton community structure and seasonal dynamics in a marine ecosystem. Ecology Letters 16: 56-63.

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Boyd, PW, TA Rynearson, EA Armstrong, F-X Fu, K Hayashi, Z Hu, DA Hutchins, RM Kudela, E Litchman, MR Mulholland, U Passow, RF Strzepek, KA Whittaker, E Yu and MK Thomas. Marine phytoplankton temperature versus growth responses from polar to tropical waters - outcome of a scientific community-wide study. PLoS ONE 8 (5): e63091.

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Kreft J-U, CM Plugge, V Grimm, C Prats, JHJ Leveau, T Banitz, S Baines, J Clark, A Ros, I Klapper, CJ Topping, AJ Field, A Schuler, E Litchman, FL Hellweger. 2013. Mighty small: observing and modeling individual microbes becomes big science. PNAS 110: 18027-18028.

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Litchman, E, MD Ohman and T Kiørboe. Trait-based approaches to zooplankton communities. Journal of Plankton Research 35: 473-484.

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Barton AD, AJ Pershing, E Litchman, NR Record, KF Edwards, ZV Finkel, T Kiørboe, and BA Ward. The biogeography of marine plankton traits. Ecology Letters 16: 522-534.

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Thomas MK, Kremer CT, Klausmeier CA, Litchman E. A global pattern of thermal adaptation in marine phytoplankton. Science 338: 1085-1088.

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Litchman E, Edwards KF, Klausmeier CA, Thomas MK Phytoplankton niches, traits and eco-evolutionary responses to global change. Marine Ecology Progress Series 470: 235-248.

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Norberg J., Urban M.C., Vellend M., Klausmeier C.A., Loeuille N. Eco-evolutionary responses of biodiversity to climate change. Nature Climate Change.

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Klausmeier, C.A. and E. Litchman. Successional dynamics in the seasonally forced diamond food web. American Naturalist 180: 1-16.

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Mellard, J.P., K. Yoshiyama, C.A. Klausmeier and E. Litchman. Experimental test of the phytoplankton competition for light and nutrient in poorly mixed water columns. Ecological Monographs 82: 239-256.

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Duffy MA, Ochs JH, Penczykowski RM, Civitello DJ, Klausmeier CA, Hall SR. 2012. Ecological context influences epidemic size and parasite-driven evolution. Science 335: 1636-1638.

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Edwards, K.F., M.K. Thomas, C.A. Klausmeier and E. Litchman. Allometric scaling and taxonomic variation in nutrient utilization traits and maximum growth rate of phytoplankton. Limnology and Oceanography 57: 554-566.

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Grman E, Robinson TMP, Klausmeier CA. 2012. Ecological specialization and trade affect the outcome of negotiations in mutualism. American Naturalist 179: 567-581.

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Steiner, C.F., C.A. Klausmeier and E. Litchman. 2012. Transient dynamics and the destabilizing effects of prey heterogeneity. Ecology 93: 632-644.

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Litchman, E. Phytoplankton. 2012. Book chapter in "Metabolic ecology: a scaling approach." Edited by R.M. Sibly, J.H. Brown and A. Kodric-Brown.


Edwards, K.F., C.A. Klausmeier and E. Litchman. 2011. Evidence for a three-way trade-off between nitrogen and phosphorus competitive abilities and cell size in phytoplankton. Ecology 92: 2085-2095.

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Stomp, M., J. Huisman, G.G. Mittelbach, E. Litchman, and C.A. Klausmeier. 2011. Large-scale biodiversity patterns in freshwater phytoplankton. Ecology 92: 2096-2107.

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Schwaderer, A.S., K. Yoshiyama, P. de Tezanos Pinto, N.G. Swenson, C.A. Klausmeier and E. Litchman. 2011. Eco-evolutionary differences in light utilization traits and distributions of freshwater phytoplankton. Limnology and Oceanography 56: 589-598.

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Mellard, J.P., K. Yoshiyama, E. Litchman and C.A. Klausmeier. 2011. The vertical distribution of phytoplankton in stratified water columns. Journal of Theoretical Biology 269: 16-30.

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Izmest’eva, L.R., E.A. Silow and E. Litchman. 2011. Long-term dynamics of the Lake Baikal pelagic phytoplankton under climate change. Inland Water Biology 4: 301-307.

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Litchman, E. 2010. Invisible invaders: non-pathogenic invasive microbes in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Ecology Letters 13: 1560-1572.

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Golubski, A., and C.A. Klausmeier. 2010. Control in mutualisms: combined implications of partner choice and bargaining roles. Journal of Theoretical Biology 267: 535-545.

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Litchman, E., P. de Tezanos Pinto, C.A. Klausmeier, M.K. Thomas and K. Yoshiyama. 2010. Linking traits to species diversity and community structure in phytoplankton. Hydrobiologia 653: 15-38.

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De Tezanos Pinto, P. and E. Litchman. 2010. Interactive effects of N:P ratios and light on nitrogen-fixer abundance. Oikos 119: 567-575.

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De Tezanos Pinto, P. and E. Litchman. 2010. Eco-physiological responses of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria to light. Hydrobiologia 639: 63-68.

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Klausmeier, C. A. 2010. Successional state dynamics: a novel approach to modeling nonequilibrium foodweb dynamics. Journal of Theoretical Biology 262: 584-595.

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MacKay, M.D., P.J. Neale, C.D. Arp, L.N. De Senerpont Domis, X. Fang, G. Gal, K.D. Jöhnk, G. Kirillin, J.D. Lenters, E. Litchman, S. MacIntyre, P. Marsh, J. Melack, W.M. Mooij, F. Peeters, A. Quesada, S.G. Schladow, M. Schmid, C. Spence, and S.L. Stokes. 2009. Modeling lakes and reservoirs in the climate system. Limnology and Oceanography 54: 2315-2329.

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Steiner, C.F., A.S. Schwaderer, V. Huber, C.A. Klausmeier, and E. Litchman. 2009. Periodically forced food chain dynamics: model predictions and experimental validation. Ecology 90: 3099-3107.

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Hsu, S.-B., C.A. Klausmeier, and C.-J. Lin. 2009. Analysis of a model of two parallel food chains. Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems Series B 12: 337-359.

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Yoshiyama, K., J.P. Mellard, E. Litchman, and C.A. Klausmeier. 2009. Phytoplankton competition for nutrients and light in a stratified water column. American Naturalist 174: 190-203.

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Litchman, E., C.A. Klausmeier, and K. Yoshiyama. 2009. Contrasting size evolution in marine and freshwater diatoms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106: 2665-2670.

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Litchman, E., and B.L.V. Nguyen. 2008. Alkaline phosphatase activity as a function of internal phosphorus concentration in freshwater phytoplankton. Journal of Phycology 44: 1379-1383.

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Litchman, E., and C.A. Klausmeier. 2008. Trait-based community ecology of phytoplankton. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 39: 615-639.

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Klausmeier, C.A. 2008. Floquet theory: A useful tool for understanding nonequilibrium dynamics. Theoretical Ecology 1: 153-163.

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Jaeger C.G., S. Diehl, C. Matauschek, C.A. Klausmeier and H. Stibor. 2008. Transient dynamics of pelagic producer-grazer systems in a gradient of nutrients and mixing depths. Ecology 89: 1272-1286.

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Klausmeier, C.A., E. Litchman, T. Daufresne and S.A. Levin. 2008. Phytoplankton stoichiometry. Ecological Research 23: 479-485.

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Yoshiyama, K., and C.A. Klausmeier. 2008. Optimal cell size for resource uptake in fluid: A new facet of resource competition. American Naturalist 171: 59-70.

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Urban, M.C., M.A. Leibold, P. Amarasekare, L. De Meester, R. Gomulkiewicz, M.E. Hochberg, C.A. Klausmeier, N. Loeuille, C. de Mazancourt, J. Norberg, J.H. Pantel, S.Y. Strauss, M. Vellend, and M.J. Wade. 2008. The evolutionary ecology of metacommunities. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23: 311-317.

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Litchman, E., C.A. Klausmeier, O.M. Schofield, and P.G. Falkowski. 2007. The role of functional traits and trade-offs in structuring phytoplankton communities: scaling from cellular to ecosystem level. Ecology Letters 10: 1170-1181.

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Lenton, T.M., and C.A. Klausmeier. 2007. Biotic stoichiometric controls on the deep ocean N:P ratio. Biogeosciences 4: 353-367.

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Klausmeier, C.A., E. Litchman, and S.A. Levin. 2007. A model of flexible uptake of two essential resources. Journal of Theoretical Biology 246: 278-289.

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Litchman, E. Resource competition and the ecological success of phytoplankton. In: Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea, Eds. P.G. Falkowski and A.H. Knoll. Elsevier. pp. 351-375.

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De Leenheer, P., S. A. Levin, E. D. Sontag, and C. A. Klausmeier. 2006. Global stability in a chemostat with multiple nutrients. Journal of Mathematical Biology 52: 419-438.

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Litchman, E., C.A. Klausmeier, J.R. Miller, O.M. Schofield and P.G. Falkowski. 2006. Multi-nutrient, multi-group model of present and future oceanic phytoplankton communities. Biogeosciences 3: 585-606.

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Stieglitz, M., R. B. McKane, and C. A. Klausmeier. 2006. A simple model for analyzing climatic effects on terrestrial carbon and nitrogen dynamics: an arctic case study. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 20: GB3016

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Kay, A.D., I.W. Ashton, E. Gorokhova, A.J. Kerkhoff, A. Liess and E. Litchman. 2005. Toward a stoichiometric framework for evolutionary biology. Oikos, 109: 6-17.

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Litchman, E. and P.J. Neale. 2005. UV effects on photosynthesis, growth and acclimation of an estuarine diatom and cryptomonad. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 300: 53-62.

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Schade, J. D., J. F. Espeleta, C. A. Klausmeier, M. E. McGroddy, S. A. Thomas, and L. Zhang. 2005. A conceptual framework for ecosystem stoichiometry: balancing resource supply and demand. Oikos 109: 40-51.

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Klausmeier, C.A., E. Litchman, T. Daufresne and S.A. Levin. 2004. Optimal N:P stoichiometry of phytoplankton. Nature, 429: 171-174.

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Litchman, E., C.A. Klausmeier and P. Bossard. 2004. Phytoplankton nutrient competition under dynamic light regimes. Limnology and Oceanography, 49: 1457-1462.

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Klausmeier, C.A., E. Litchman and S.A. Levin. 2004. Phytoplankton growth and stoichiometry under multiple nutrient limitation. Limnology and Oceanography, 49: 1463-1470.

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Litchman, E. 2003. Competition and coexistence of phytoplankton under fluctuating light: experiments with two cyanobacteria. Aquatic Microbial Ecology, 31: 241-248.

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Litchman, E., D. Steiner and P. Bossard. 2003. Photosynthetic and growth responses of three freshwater algae to phosphorus limitation and daylength. Freshwater Biology, 48: 2141-2148.

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Klausmeier, C. A., and D. Tilman. 2002. Spatial models of competition. pp. 43-78 in eds. U. Sommer and B. Worm, Competition and Coexistence, Springer-Verlag.

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Litchman, E., P.J. Neale and A.T. Banaszak. 2002. Increased sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation in nitrogen-limited dinoflagellates: photoprotection and repair. Limnology and Oceanography, 47: 86-94.

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van de Koppel, J., and 11 others. 2002. Spatial interaction and vegetation collapse. American Naturalist 159: 209-218.

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Callieri, C., G. Morabito, Y. Huot, P.J. Neale and E. Litchman. 2001. Photosynthetic response of pico- and nanoplanktonic algae to UVB, UVA and PAR in a high mountain lake. Aquatic Sciences, 63: 286-293.

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Klausmeier, C. A. 2001. Habitat destruction and extinction in competitive and mutualistic metacommunities. Ecology Letters 4: 57-63.

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Klausmeier, C.A. and E. Litchman. 2001. Algal games: the vertical distribution of phytoplankton in poorly mixed water columns. Limnology and Oceanography, 46: 1998-2007.

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Köhler, J., M. Schmitt, H. Krumbeck, M. Kapfer, E. Litchman and P.J. Neale. 2001. Effects of UV on carbon assimilation of phytoplankton in a mixed water column. Aquatic Sciences, 63: 294-309.

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Litchman, E. and C.A. Klausmeier. 2001. Competition of phytoplankton under fluctuating light. American Naturalist, 157: 170–187.

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Neale, P.J., E. Litchman, C. Sobrino, C. Callieri, G. Morabito, V. Montecino, Y. Huot, P. Bossard, C. Lehmann and D. Steiner. 2001. Quantifying the response of phytoplankton photosynthesis to ultraviolet radiation: biological weighting functions versus in situ measurements in two Swiss lakes. Aquatic Sciences, 63: 265-285.

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2000 and earlier

Litchman, E. 2000. Growth rates of phytoplankton under fluctuating light. Freshwater Biology, 44: 223–235.

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Klausmeier, C. A. 1999. Regular and irregular patterns in semiarid vegetation. Science 284: 1826-1828.

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Klausmeier, C. A. 1998. Extinction in multispecies and spatially explicit models of habitat destruction. American Naturalist 152: 303-310.

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Litchman, E. 1998. Population and community responses of phytoplankton to fluctuating light. Oecologia, 117: 247–257.

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Levich, A.P. and E. Litchman (E.G. Lichman). 1992. A model-based investigation of possibilities for the directed change in the structure of phytoplankton communities. J. General Biology, 53: 689–703. (In Russian with English abstract).

Levich, A.P., E.A. Titova, E. Litchman (E.G. Lichman), and A.A. Vasin. 1990. Model analysis of the manipulation of algal community structure. In: Mathematical models in environmental management. Rostov-on-Don (In Russian).

Last updated: December 5, 2016